Presenter: Thomas Hoffman is married and has two adult daughters. He is a member of the US Supreme Court and the NY Court of Appeals. In addition to being a civil lawyer, Tom has a big interest in the Civil War and has a private library of more than 1,000 books on Abraham Lincoln. As daunting as Lincoln's domestic political and military challenges, was the critical international importance of preserving the neutrality of the great world powers, England, France and Spain. If any of these nations intervened or recognized the independence of the Southern Confederacy, the war could not have been won. This year we will discuss how Lincoln, despite having no foreign affairs experience, used diplomatic tact to keep these great powers neutral and to navigate through several global crises. $15.00/session.